Using surveillance to address a practice problem


Using Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

 The health outcomes and effective distribution of the effects within the group of the population underpin population health. Epidemiology used information from surveillance in monitoring the burden of disease over time to determine changes in disease occurrence and risk factors through the collection of health data over time. Thus, surveillance is crucial in addressing population health to improve health outcomes (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2019).

          This discussion will analyze mental disorders and specifically major depressive disorders (MDD). The discussion will explore surveillance data at the local and national level in addressing the issues of mental disorders and the intervention needed to improve the population’s health. Data mining machine has potentially been helpful in the study of disease epidemiology, promoting advancement in disease control. In addition, the use of data collection on depression prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates improves treatment specification and cost reduction (Jain &. Barot, 2018).

Identification of Information Hub and Topic Selected. Brief Summary of the Practice Problem.

          Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates a depressed mood, loss of interest, and impairment in the individual’s everyday life (Jain &. Barot, 2018). MDD is identified as one of the common mental disorders globally, nationally, and locally. MDD is recognized as the fourth leading cause of disability as measured by disability-adjusted life years. MDD is the second leading cause of death in 2020 due to suicide and comorbidity.  The impact of MDD on population health is enormous compared to heart disease, diabetes, and other physical illnesses. The economic impact is outstanding. Over 350 million people are affected globally. MDD impacts the quality of life and has a high mortality rate resulting from suicide (Gutierrez-Rojas et al., 2020; Tao et al., 2021; World Health Organization, 2019)‎.    

Compare and Contrast National and State Levels Data. Using the State of One Residence as a Basis for the Comparison.

 MDD affects seven percent population of the United States (U.S.)  in a year. An estimated 21.6 percent (42 million) of the U.S. population age 18 years and over experienced depression between 2005 to 2008. In 2019, 20.6 percent of adults (51.5 million people) experienced mental illness in the U.S. Thus, the U.S. annual prevalence of depression is 7.8 percent. Over the past 11 years, national survey data indicated a 27 percent increase in the self-reported incidence of depression in age 40 to 59. In addition, there is under-reporting of an estimated seventy percent of major depressive cases in ages 65 and above adults (World Health Organization. (‎2019)‎.

          There is a prediction of an increase in depression rate with covid-19 and an anticipated increase among the population with increasing life expectancy. There is a prediction that MDD will be the second leading disease burden in 2030 as measured in disability-adjusted life years. MDD comorbidity with other physical diseases increased morbidity and mortality rate.  Approximately 46 percent of people who die by suicide had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. At the national level, ninety percent of death from suicide are people who have shown symptoms of depression or some other mental illness. The annual prevalence of suicide is 4.8 percent in adults, 11.8 percentage in age 18 to 25, and 18.8 percent in high school students (National Alliance of Mental Illness {NAMI},2021).

          The unemployment rate is higher among adults in the U.S. with mental illness (5.8 percent). In the U.S., the financial burden from MDD from 2005 to 2015 was 210.5 billion dollars. The cost was from the economic burden from treatment, disability claims, workplace absenteeism, and suicide-related (Kauffman et al., 2021).

Comparison and Contrasting of Depression at National Level and California

          Approximately 11.0 percent of adolescents ages 12-17 in 2013 to 2014 have depressive episodes at the national level compared to 11.5 percent of California. In addition, the annual average of treatment of depression among adolescents at the national level (38.6 percent) was higher than in California (30.5 percent) between 2010 to 2014 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

          Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. An estimated six percent of California adults experience MDD between 2011 to 2015, close to two million individuals in the California population.  Between 2017 to 2018, approximately 5.2 percent (1.6 million) of Californians reported their mental health treatment needs were unmet in the past year compared to the national level, with about 5.6 percent (13.8 million). Between 2013-2014, the rate of severe mental illnesses in California was 3.8 percent compared to the national level with an estimation of 4.2 percent. Between 2014 to 2015, estimated adults ages 18 and above had suicidal thoughts, about 3.9 percent at the national level and 3.8 percent in California. In addition, 36.9 percent of age 18 and above in California received treatment/therapy within a year of diagnosis compared to 42.7 percent annual average at the national level between 2010-2014. In 2014, 79.4 percent of age 21 to 64 were not in the labor force due to mental disorders (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

Describing How Data from One Home State Compares to Data from the Other States.

         The statistical analysis of depression is greatly affected by ethnicity. In the state of California, depression is highest among the Native Americans. About 13.4 percent of the population of California’s native indicated experiencing the major depressive disorder. The Pacific Islanders ranked number two (11.7 percent). The data stated Asian Americans (6.6 percent) and Caucasians (8.3 percent) are below average. Environmental and societal factors are essential factors to be considered in which some populations are affected by depression. In California estimated 3.8 percent of all adults per year in 2013-2014, age 18 and above, have experienced severe mental illness (Johnson, 2020).

          In comparing California to other states, California ranked number 48 for depression rate (9.17 percent). Oregon State ranked number one (17.7 percent) from analyzes data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on depression rate over five years from 2014-2018 and the change in depression rates from 2014-2018. The percentage change denotes which state has experienced an increase or decrease in depression rates. The estimated depression rate in Oregon, a neighboring state to California, is 25.20 percent, with a percentage change of 9.17 percent. The overall depression rate in the individual States is from the people who indicated they were diagnosed with some form of depression (Johnson, 2020).

Identification of One National Organization or Intervention Related to Selected Topic That Addresses the Burden of The Disease. Describing the Impact of the Organization or Intervention to Improve Outcomes.

          National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) is the nation’s largest grass root mental health organization devoted to creating better lives for populations in America with mental illness. NAMI allied with over 600 affiliates and 48 states organization that operates to raise awareness, provide support and education to those with mental illness, or need help. (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2021).

          NAMI works to educate people to raise awareness of mental illness, fight stigma, provide support, and advocate for families and individuals with mental illness. NAMI is a leading voice in the community by providing help, knowledge, statistics, and the story of the people living with mental illness to leaders and journalists to promote awareness. NAMI has supported the research of race, related issues, and mental illness and has provided and supported programs to reduce mental illness. NAMI has helped individuals, families, and communities to build hope for those in need of mental health services, providing support and education to families living with loved ones with mental disorders. NAMI helps provide LGBTQ positive psychotherapy to younger people under 25 years by providing services that enhance mental health and substance abuse to people who need the benefits even if they can pay for the services. NAMI has provided a lot of encounters and engagement with policymakers regarding issues with mental illness. NAMI publishes reports on problems promoting public awareness about the importance of adequate mental health policy and has led to the reform of many mental health services by different states. The report in 2021 is urging the federal government to protect individuals through affordable health care. The affordable care art has helped a lot of people with mental illness. In 2020, NAMI played a crucial role in allowing states to make policies relating to mental health policy. In 2016, the NAMI report called for a culture shift towards mental illness (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2021).

Sharing One Professional Experience Related to the Topic.

          In my professional experience providing care to individuals with mental illness in Southern California, 60 to 65 percent of my clients are Caucasian. 20 to 25 percent Hispanics, 15 percent Black and less than five percent Asian.  About 90 percent of my practice are females, and ten percent males. Under-reporting of MDD creates a gap in service renders in mental health. For the past few years, I have had a young group of people come to my practice for a history of attempted suicide. Suicide is the second leading reason for death in ages 15-29. Severe mental illness that could be preventable has resulted in premature death in people.  From professional experience, non-adherence to medication and follow-ups visits is a problem in psychiatry-often resulting in relapse. Every time an individual with significant depression relapses, the depression is more severe than the previous, and they often result in a lot of impairment and disability. There is a considerable gap between the individual that needs mental health care and access to mental health services. It is possible to provide low-cost and adequate coverage for mental health services effectively.

           In conclusion, proper evaluation, referral, and treatment can address knowledge gaps in mental disorders, epidemiology, prevention, and enhanced surveillance efforts. The use of surveillance to determine prevalence, morbidity, and mortality by epidemiologists will promote the prevention of diseases. Epidemiology use prevention strategies in negating the impact of disorders to advance health outcomes. Increase awareness is needed to reduce stigma and easy access to mental health resources and care. Increase screening, treatment to improve existing mental disorders, and education on mental health to decrease new cases. 


Chamberlain College of Nursing, (2019). NR-704 week three: Using surveillance to address a practice problem. [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: Adtalem.

Gutierrez-Rojas, L., Porras-Segovia, A., Dunne, H., Andrade-Gonzalez, N.,

& Cervilla, J.A. (2020, August 3). The prevalence and correction of major depressive disorder: A systematic review. Braz J Psychiatry,

42(6),657-672. (Links to an external site.)

Jain, M.H., & Barot, M.T. (2018, March-April). Utilizing machine learning algorithms in predicting the severity of major depressive disorders. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 9(2).,46-52. Https:// (Links to an external site.)

Johnson, A. (2020, April). States with the highest rates of depression.  Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Kaufman, K., Davey, C.H., Dolata, J., Figueroa, M., Gunzler, D., Huml, A., Pencak, J., Sajatovic, M., & Sehgal, A.R. (2021). Changes in self-reported depressive symptoms in adults in the United States from 2005 to 2016. Journal of American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 27(2), 148-155. (Links to an external site.) and

National Alliance of Mental Illness {NAMI}, (2021). Mental health by numbers. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, (2015). Behavioral Health Barometer, California. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Tao, X., Chi, O., Delaney, P. J., Li, L., & Huang, J. (2021, February). Detecting depression by using an ensemble classifier based on the quality of life. Brain Informatics, 8(1). (Links to an external site.)

World Health Organization (‎2019)‎. The WHO unique initiative for mental health (‎2019-2023)‎: Universal health coverage for mental health. World Health Organization.


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