Psy101 week 2 discussions 1,2

The Brain and Sensation and Perception: Seeing Is Believing?

To prepare for this discussion, please read Chapters 2 and 3 of your textbook. In addition, watch Perspective: Brain Games (Season 6) and the Charlie Chaplin Optic Illusion (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and read “Culture and Point of View (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.”. Additionally, review the weekly Instructor Guidance and any relevant Announcements. In this discussion, you will consider the important role the brain plays in perceiving sensory information by describing perception, examining individual experience, recognizing cultural differences, and applying this content to your own life experiences.

 

The brain is a marvelous tool that helps us interpret the many experiences we encounter on a daily basis.  Yet, our perception may be vastly different than the reality of the sensory cues we receive.

 

 

 

Post your initial response of 250 words or more by Day 3 (Thursday).  Respond to at least two of your peers by Day 7 (Monday).  You are encouraged to post one or more of your required replies early each week (e.g., by Saturday) to stimulate more meaningful and interactive discourse in the discussion forum.  In addition, strive to provide a response to classmates who replied to your initial post and/or the Instructor (if applicable).  Peer responses may vary in length but should be carefully crafted and insightful.  Below are some suggestions to assist your thinking.

Guided Response:  Reply to two or more peers overall.  The goal of the discussion forum is to foster continual dialogue, similar to what might occur in a verbal face-to-face exchange.  Consider the following questions in your responses:

  • How are your experiences similar to or different than those offered by your peers?  Can you offer additional examples?
  • Can you think of any cultural influences that might affect sensation and perception?
  • How might damage to different parts of the brain impact various processes related to sensation and perception?

Continue to monitor this discussion board through 5 PM (Mountain Time) on Day 7 of the week. Peer responses may vary in length but should be detailed and thought provoking. You are expected to respond to any question posed to you by the instructor, and you are encouraged to reply to your classmates’ questions as well. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses to your classmates and your instructor.

Discussion 1 Reply

Andrew Jarman

Yesterday Jun 26 at 12:37pm

“Strictly speaking, sensation is the immediate response of our senses to sensory stimulation; Perception is the brain’s interpretation of the signals it receives from its various sensory systems” says (Guy R. Lefrançois, 2016). Our brain receives signals from our different senses, such as taste or smell, and then interprets what it receives giving us a perception. There are different brain structures that enable these activities to happen. For example, the human brain is broken into three structures; the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The hindbrain is further broken down by the cerebellum, medulla, and pons. This section of the brain is responsible for balance, coordination, breathing, sleeping, movement, arousal, and respiration (Lefrancois, 2016). The midbrain is at the top of the brain stem. It connects the hindbrain to the forebrain and is primarily involved with maintaining arousal, or alertness and motivation (Lefrancios, 2016). The forebrain is the largest structure of the human brain. It completely surrounds the midbrain and is responsible for human thought, behavior, and emotion (Lefrancois, 2016). These structures of the human brain are broken down further into many other substructures. There are some important cues the brain uses to make sense of the world around us including; binocular cues, and monocular cues. Binocular cues means that our eyes are both place in front and as a result we have a much better perception of depth and distance. This is because both eyes are focused on an object at the same time. If the object is moved closer our eyes converge or point slightly inward (Lefrancois, 2016). Monocular cues do not depend on having two eyes. These cues are things such as larger objects are judged to be closer, objects behind another are further away, converging lines suggest distance, and shady objects are seen as being distant (Lefrancois, 2016). Because of these different cues it is sometimes easy to trick the brain into perceiving things differently than they actually are. For example, if the brain perceives shaded objects as being farther away one can shade an object that is actually closer and make it appear far off. The same can be said for the size of an object. If object close up seem larger then they will seem smaller if they are moved farther. However, one can place a small object very close but yet it will give an illusion as being far off. Different societies will dictate how individuals perceive the world around them. “East Asians have been found to classify objects and events on the basis of relationships and family resemblance, whereas Americans classify on the basis of rule-based category membership” says (Richard E. Nisbett and Takahiko Masuda, 2003). Reference Guy R. Lefrançois (2016) Psychology: The Human Puzzle, Second Edition. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from                         https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUPSY101.16.1/sections/sec3.1 Nisbett, R. and Masuda, T. (2003). Culture and point of view. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from             http://www.pnas.org/content/100/19/11163.full

 

“Strictly speaking, sensation is the immediate response of our senses to sensory stimulation; Perception is the brain’s interpretation of the signals it receives from its various sensory systems” says (Guy R. Lefrançois, 2016). Our brain receives signals from our different senses, such as taste or smell, and then interprets what it receives giving us a perception.

There are different brain structures that enable these activities to happen. For example, the human brain is broken into three structures; the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The hindbrain is further broken down by the cerebellum, medulla, and pons. This section of the brain is responsible for balance, coordination, breathing, sleeping, movement, arousal, and respiration (Lefrancois, 2016). The midbrain is at the top of the brain stem. It connects the hindbrain to the forebrain and is primarily involved with maintaining arousal, or alertness and motivation (Lefrancios, 2016). The forebrain is the largest structure of the human brain. It completely surrounds the midbrain and is responsible for human thought, behavior, and emotion (Lefrancois, 2016). These structures of the human brain are broken down further into many other substructures.

There are some important cues the brain uses to make sense of the world around us including; binocular cues, and monocular cues. Binocular cues means that our eyes are both place in front and as a result we have a much better perception of depth and distance. This is because both eyes are focused on an object at the same time. If the object is moved closer our eyes converge or point slightly inward (Lefrancois, 2016). Monocular cues do not depend on having two eyes. These cues are things such as larger objects are judged to be closer, objects behind another are further away, converging lines suggest distance, and shady objects are seen as being distant (Lefrancois, 2016).

Because of these different cues it is sometimes easy to trick the brain into perceiving things differently than they actually are. For example, if the brain perceives shaded objects as being farther away one can shade an object that is actually closer and make it appear far off. The same can be said for the size of an object. If object close up seem larger then they will seem smaller if they are moved farther. However, one can place a small object very close but yet it will give an illusion as being far off.

Different societies will dictate how individuals perceive the world around them. “East Asians have been found to classify objects and events on the basis of relationships and family resemblance, whereas Americans classify on the basis of rule-based category membership” says (Richard E. Nisbett and Takahiko Masuda, 2003).

Reference

Guy R. Lefrançois (2016) Psychology: The Human Puzzle, Second Edition. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from            

            https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUPSY101.16.1/sections/sec3.1 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Nisbett, R. and Masuda, T. (2003). Culture and point of view. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from

            http://www.pnas.org/content/100/19/11163.full (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Reply 2

Carolyn Malone

Tuesday Jun 27 at 2:43pm

Carol Malone   LeFrancois (2016) defines perception as “the brain’s interpretation of the signals it receives from its various sensory systems”. Sensation is the instant response of our brain being stimulated by senses (LeFrancois, 2016). The sensory organs such as ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin sends data to the brain in order to depict what is happening around us. Together, sensation and perception work hand in hand, as perception is dependent on sensation. The eyes retrieve visual perception and are made up of the pupil, retina, rods, cones and the iris (LeFrancois, 2016). They initiate neural impulses that convey to the brain through the optic nerve. Senses are energy transformed into instincts that we count on to determine reality, but perception can be distorted by actions and even culture practices. Nisbett & Masuda (2003) state that “the differences in attention, perception and cognition that we have shown are driven by differences in social structure and social practices…sometimes, although not always, these differences may be caused or enhanced by economic factors” (para 30). Between the Asian culture and Western culture in regards to perception is that the Asians are interdependent and focuses more on the environment and others, whereas Westerners are more independent and focus on themselves and objects.   Guy R. LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/  Nisbett, R.E., & Masuda, T. (2003).

 

Carol Malone

 

LeFrancois (2016) defines perception as “the brain’s interpretation of the signals it receives from its various sensory systems”. Sensation is the instant response of our brain being stimulated by senses (LeFrancois, 2016). The sensory organs such as ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin sends data to the brain in order to depict what is happening around us. Together, sensation and perception work hand in hand, as perception is dependent on sensation. The eyes retrieve visual perception and are made up of the pupil, retina, rods, cones and the iris (LeFrancois, 2016). They initiate neural impulses that convey to the brain through the optic nerve. Senses are energy transformed into instincts that we count on to determine reality, but perception can be distorted by actions and even culture practices. Nisbett & Masuda (2003) state that “the differences in attention, perception and cognition that we have shown are driven by differences in social structure and social practices…sometimes, although not always, these differences may be caused or enhanced by economic factors” (para 30). Between the Asian culture and Western culture in regards to perception is that the Asians are interdependent and focuses more on the environment and others, whereas Westerners are more independent and focus on themselves and objects.

 

Guy R. LeFrancois, G. (2016). Psychology: The human puzzle (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. 

Nisbett, R.E., & Masuda, T. (2003).

 

 

Discussion 2

 

Development: Growing up Globally

To prepare for this discussion, please read Chapter 4 of your textbook. In addition, watch Babies (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and read “Independence and Interdependence in Children’s Developmental Experiences”.  You must also find one scholarly article to inform your thinking (see instructions below). Finally, review Instructor Guidance and Announcements. In this discussion, you will consider development across cultures by describing mainstream and (cross) cultural research and applying content to your own life.  Be sure to use your own academic voice (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and apply in-text citations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. appropriately throughout your post.

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and social changes from womb to tomb.  One point of contention amongst developmentalists concerns the relative influence of nature (i.e., biological inheritance) versus nurture (i.e., environmental affordance).  In this discussion, you will consider these issues.

  • Watch Babies (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., which follows four babies in different geographical locations (USA, Tokyo, Namibia, and Mongolia) for the first year of their lives, documenting the vastly different worlds these children occupy.  Note the many developmental milestones that people around the world will meet regardless of cultural context.  Consider the great impact different environments might have on various aspects of development:  nutrition and physical development, childcare arrangements and social development, parenting styles and emotional development, educational practices and cognitive development, just to name a few.
  • Select any one concept from developmental psychology.  You may choose something you noted from the video or something else entirely, even from a different age range.  Possibilities include (but are not limited to) the following:  attachment (e.g., Harlow), temperament, parenting styles, moral development (e.g., Kohlberg), cognitive development (e.g., Piaget), psychosocial development (e.g., Erikson), adolescence (e.g., Marcia), gender development, education, child or elderly care, feeding practices, play, and so on.  Pick something that interests you.  (As an example to illustrate this discussion assignment, a student could choose the concept of “sleeping arrangements”; however, please note that you may not choose this as your topic.).
  • Locate a scholarly articleexamining this concept/developmental pattern from a cultural or cross-cultural perspective. 
    • On the library homepage, click on the Advanced Search link, found under the search box.  In the first search box, enter a keyword or key phrase relating to the concept you have selected.  In the second search box, enter the word culture.
    • Below the search boxes, look for the Limit your results section and select Limit to Full Text and Limit to Scholarly/Peer Reviewed
    • Then, click Search.
  • Read “Independence and Interdependence in Children’s Developmental Experiences”.
  • Discuss development.  In your discussion, include the following:
    • Describe the developmental stage/concept/issue, providing a definition and explanation.  What do we know about this developmental topic?  (Following the selected example to illustrate this discussion assignment, consider American sleeping practices and ideals.).
    • Based on the article(s) you located (and, if relevant, the video you watched), distinguish mainstream psychological knowledge about development with knowledge from a cultural perspective.  How does culture provide additional insight on this topic?  (Following the selected example to illustrate this discussion assignment, consider Indian sleeping practices and ideals.).
    • Formulate plausible explanations for cultural differences.  Why does this stage/concept/issue differ depending upon culture?  (Following the selected example to illustrate this discussion assignment, consider cultural ideals of independence and interdependence; see also Raeff, 2010.).
    • Explain the value in cultural awareness with regard to development. 
  • Remember to use your own academic voice (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and apply in-text citations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. appropriately throughout your post.

Post your initial response of 250 words or more by Day 3 (Thursday).  Respond to at least two of your peers by Day 7 (Monday).  You are encouraged to post one or more of your required replies early each week (e.g., by Saturday) to stimulate more meaningful and interactive discourse in the discussion forum.  In addition, strive to provide a response to classmates who replied to your initial post and/or the Instructor (if applicable).  Peer responses may vary in length but should be carefully crafted and insightful.  Below are some suggestions to assist your thinking.

Guided Response:  Reply to at least one peer who chose a concept other than the one you selected and two or more peers overall.  The goal of the discussion forum is to foster continual dialogue, similar to what might occur in a verbal face-to-face exchange.  Consider the following questions in your responses:

  • What are some ethical considerations that might be relevant when conducting cross-cultural research on the topic your peer selected?
  • How do your experiences relate to the concept your peer identified?
  • Can you think of any alternate interpretations of the cultural differences your peer described?

Continue to monitor this discussion board through 5 PM (Mountain Time) on Day 7 of the week. Peer responses may vary in length but should be detailed and thought provoking.  You are expected to respond to any question posted to you by the instructor, and you are encouraged to reply to your classmates’ questions as well.  Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses to your classmates and your instructor.

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